Lade Inhalt...

Flexibility Measurement within the Service industry

Diplomarbeit 2008 112 Seiten

BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation

Leseprobe

I. Table of Contents

II. Table of Figures

III. List of abbreviations

1. Introduction
1.1 Company Profile
1.2 Problem Definition – objectives
1.3 Problem solving - Applied Methodology
1.3.1 Pre-study
1.3.2 Main-study
1.4 Outline of the thesis

2. Theoretical declaration of flexibility and flexibility measurement
2.1 Structuring of the problem
2.2 Analysis of essential concepts and theories
2.2.1 Manufacturing flexibility
2.2.2 Measurement of manufacturing flexibility
2.2.3 Service flexibility
2.2.4 Measurement of service flexibility
2.3 Evaluation of the concepts
2.4 Development - Berco Flexibility model

3. Situation analysis of the Logistics environment in SA
3.1 Statement of the SA Transport Industry
3.1.1 Development and Growth of the 3PL industry among key markets - Conclusions for the SA 3PL industry
3.1.2 South Africa’s logistics and transport infrastructure
3.2 Supply Chain Maturity
3.3 Derivation of requirements for the 3PL

4. Flexibility Measurement at Berco - Express
4.1 Core competencies and Processes of Berco-Express
4.2 Flexibility Analysis
4.2.1 Procedure of external flexibility measurement
4.2.2 Procedure of internal flexibility measurement:
4.3 Current state of Berco’s Flexibility level
4.3.1 Evaluation of results from external flexibility measurement
4.3.2 Evaluation of results from internal flexibility measurement

5. Summary and outlook

6. List of references

7. Annexure

II. Table of Figures

Figure 2.1: Flexibility – different meanings and areas

Figure 2.2: Mapping of problems

Figure 2.3: Flexibility levels and types according to Sethi and Sethi -13-

Figure 2.4: Flexibility levels and types according to Koste and Malhorta

Figure 2.5: Abstract – four of seven service flexibility dimensions

Figure 2.6: Evaluation of flexibility concepts

Figure 2.7: Evaluation of flexibility measurement concepts

Figure 2.8: Logistics Flexibility in the Global supply chain agility model

Figure 2.9: Berco’s flexibility dimensions

Figure 2.10: Berco flexibility model

Figure 3.1: Total Logistics expenditure

Figure 3.2 3PL Supply chain Accomplishments

Figure 3.3: Expectation setting

Figure 3.4: Derivation of requirements for Flexibility and for the 3PL

Figure 4.1: Segmentation of CEP market – Classification of Berco

Figure 4.2: Distribution Flow Chart

Figure 4.3: Part of customer questionnaire

Figure 4.4: BE flexibility matrix

Figure 4.5: Relative importance of Berco’s flexibility dimensions and relative fulfilment of these dimensions

Figure 4.6: Analysis part two from customer questionnaire

Figure 4.7: Summary of results – internal questionnaire

Figure 4.8: Business strategy objectives

III. List of abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

1. Introduction

The following thesis was conducted within the confines of Berco Express and seeks to develop a flexibility measurement methodology. Spearheading the introduction of Berco Express, a Logistics Service Provider (LSP), operating in the South African Transportation industry.

1.1 Company Profile

Berco Express (BE) is part of Berco Logistics Services (BLS), a wholly owned subsidiary of the Berco Group, a privately owned company established in 1992. The vision and passion of all the people of this company is to make BLS the customer’s logistics service provider of choice. BE started its courier operation in 1992 and has since grown into a medium sized organisation with 16 branches nationally in South Africa (SA), employing close to 1000 people and over 250 vehicles. Additionally under the BLS umbrella included are the two complimentary divisions Active Warehousing and Clearing & Forwarding. BE standard Courier Services embracing dedicated distribution, domestic and international consignments. In conjunction with the Global Distribution Alliance Network (GDA) all major cities worldwide as well as thousands of towns in more than 220 countries are served.[1]

Active Warehousing a newer division is offering in 4 warehouse facilities (Cape town, Durban, Johannesburg and Pretoria) the services below:[2]

- Receiving
- Inventory Management
- Order Processing
- High Value Store
- Value added Services

Services primarily emphasize product flow rather than storage. Revenue contribution from the clearing and forwarding division is based on Business operations in the field of Airfreight, Ocean Freight, Multi-modal solutions, Import & Export and Customs Clearance. The intellectual capital of the BLS group comprises specialists in courier, warehousing, distribution, clearing & forwarding, management information systems, project management and account/contract management.

With a contribution of R 210,000,000 to the Total Berco Group Revenue for 2005 and an annual average growth rate of 35% over the previous five years BE has been established a sustainable position within both the Berco Group and the industry.[3] Continuous improvement esteemed as the platform for Excellence has been implemented to guarantee BE’s drive towards Service Excellence.[4]

SA’s transport industry recorded in 2006 a total income of approximately R 160 000 million.[5] This presents an increase of 7.1% p.a. over the income reported to the corresponding survey of 2002.[6] The transport industry contribution to the increase in economic activity for the third quarter of 2007 amounted 0.4 %. SA’s major problems are high logistics costs, skills shortage within the transport industry and it’s inefficient transport infrastructure.

1.2 Problem Definition – objectives

Economy today is characteristic for globalization, consolidation and an ongoing technology to support business processes.[7] All the time Enterprises have to manage these changes in the environment.[8] To be competitive in the future these organizations require an agile and flexible structure.[9] Independent market places will come together to one global market place assuming the requirements for coordination and optimization of business processes are rising rapidly.[10] The competitive challenge generates pressure to optimize processes and to continuously improve services.[11] The need for faster, more visible and more flexible supply chains influences the architecture and structure of enterprises that belong to a specific supply chain. The features agility, flexibility and adaptability are additional to speed and efficiency the key factors of competitive strength.[12] Companies start focusing on their core competencies.[13] As a direct result companies have started outsourcing their transportation requirements to LSP’s.[14]

Today’s transportation industry is faster, more global and more competitive than ever before.[15] Customers prefer LSP’s that can do more than deliver efficient service at a competitive cost.[16] Nowadays customers require more responsive, more visible and more intelligent supply chains.[17] Therefore to compete in this environment the LSP is challenged by forging itself to be flexible, agile, transparent and adaptable.

Regards the topic of the thesis the concentration is directed towards Flexibility Measurement applied in the South African Transportation Industry with a specific focus on BE Express. Main objectives of the report are firstly to define the meaning of flexibility, to measure BE’s flexibility and after all to draw conclusions in form of business strategy objectives as well as requirements and challenges for BE, that exist within the company and which will help to maintain and increase the level of flexibility as well as secure a competitive advantage for BE within its market sector.

Additionally with the ongoing Transformation of BE from a “pure” Courier Company to a “Supply chain solutions” Company the determination of BE’s recognition and perception in the market - derived from results of the Flexibility Measurement - represents an important factor, to consider in terms of strategic planning.

1.3 Problem solving - Applied Methodology

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the methodology undertaken in this research. The chapter declares the method of data collection, chosen instruments and explains the reasons for the applied research design. In order to be able to solve the raised topic problematic the work was structured in a pre-study, followed by a main study. The two studies have been performed separately, following different purposes and are of different design.

1.3.1 Pre-study

In the beginning a Pre-study was conducted to help to enhance the familiarity of the researcher with the given problem, whereby more ideas and insight could be attained. A Pre-study can also clarify the concept and make it easier to break down a broad problem definition into smaller or more particular problems. Another benefit is to assist in defining further research priorities.

In the context of this paper the pre-study helped to define the meaning of flexibility for BE and it’s measurement better. Comprehensive Research of the Logistics environment in SA provided more precise knowledge about the transport industry, Supply chain Development / Maturity and several other issues. Through these information’s the problem definition was developed to a proper state equalling with the achievement of a more purposeful starting point. Additional the cognitions could be used to design the main-study in a more accurate way as well. The Pre-study consisted of a literature review as well as one-on-one interviews with senior staff within BE.

The literature review focused on literature pertaining flexibility and flexibility measurement within the manufacturing and service industry, the SA transportation Industry as well as Supply Chain Development. The Internal Interviews looked to ascertain the state of the Logistics environment within SA. Significant for the interviews was the open discussions atmosphere as no questionnaire was followed. Instead, the area of interest was stated and general questions asked. Therewith this part of the pre-study was designed to be flexible to ensure that no relevant information was missed.

1.3.2 Main-study

The main-study had the structure of a descriptive and analyzing research. With the results of the pre-study it was clearer to determine what to research and what is of interest at this stage. In comparison the main-study was more focused and structured. From the information that was gathered through the pre-study a suitable BE flexibility model could be developed.

The proposed model, as outlined in chapter 2.4, relies on external and internal areas of flexibility measurement within BE. Firstly, the external part was related to BE’s customers. The thesis has therefore included a practical field study, which was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey (see chapter 2.4 and 4.2.1). Information obtained in this way served as a source of valuable information in terms of the determination of the state of flexibility at BE. Observations were generated systematically and in a structured way, in the form of a customer questionnaire with fixed questions / statements and answers. Comparison and generalisation aspects ranking amongst the main reason for the prioritised standardisation.

It was important to reflect a representative sample of customers. Thus the sample of strategically customers that were chosen to be interviewed was based upon certain criteria, which is outlined in detail in chapter 4.2.1. Due to the standardizing form of the questionnaire the external measurement is equivalent to a quantitative study.[18]

The next section is providing more detail on the internal measurement. To perform this part, interviews were conducted with BE employees, who were in different management positions. The number of interviews was kept relatively low (8 interviews). This is generally recommended when performing a qualitative research.[19] Qualitative studies should be carried out as the name suggest, through a few well-performed interviews rather than through many poorly performed interviews.[20] Of importance is the quality, not the quantity. The internal questionnaire contained of three parts, which getting expanded further in chapter 4.2.2. During the interviews the structure of the internal questionnaire was followed but sometimes supplementary questions were also asked to gather valuable ideas and information’s.

1.4 Outline of the thesis

Chapter 1 discussed the problem definition as well as the objectives based upon BE’s company profile, whilst the applied methodology section referred to the approach that was adopted to solve the problem.

Chapter 2 contains the broader structuring of the problem Flexibility and Measurement. After this it follows a comprehensive analysis plus evaluation of relevant concepts and theories that relate to manufacturing and service flexibility as well as their measurement. Once these theories are clearly understood and evaluated regarding their adaptation to BE, the BE flexibility model as well as the developed measurement tools get to some extent explained.

The purpose of chapter 3 is to analyze the South African Logistics environment. Superficially the Development of the 3PL industry is going to be emphasized. Additionally this chapter explores the maturity and competitiveness of South African supply chains. Of prime importance is the derivation of requirements for 3PL’s in SA and for their flexibility level based on the trends / challenges of the industry and the existing supply chain maturity in SA.

Detailed Demonstration is given in chapter 4 elaborating the main point of flexibility measurement. The first section is mapping out the processes and core competencies of BE. Central point of the second section is to describe the application of the developed tools for internal and external measurement of Flexibility at BE. Moreover after the presentation of the results from the measurement, the evaluation of whose takes place. In this context BE’s flexibility level is determined by the relative position on the BE flexibility matrix. After that the research is focused on the derivation of requirements and challenges for BE, that exist to increase and maintain the current flexibility level. The Closing point presents the suggestion of business strategy objectives based on BE’s strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter 5 concerns the final summary and outlook. A comparison of assigned objectives and achieved objectives determines if the research has been successful or not. The problematic concerning definition and measurement of flexibility gets further discussed. Finally a conclusion regarding the importance of BE’s flexibility level within the SA transport industry is reached.

2. Theoretical declaration of flexibility and flexibility measurement

Originally the word flexibility is descended from the Latin language (“flectere": flexure”) and defined as capability to adapt to changing situations.[21] Divergently from this general Definition for instance in terms of manufacturing flexibility over 50 different definitions can be sourced from the literature.[22] Consequently around the fundamental definition of flexibility a huge amount of further developments, modifications and particularization do exist in the literature[23]. Thus, flexibility generally is a broad subject, as illustrated in the figure below:

Figure 2.1: Flexibility – different meanings and areas

illustration not visible in this excerpt

As can be seen above Flexibility appears in many different areas and can take on various different meanings. It can be an attribute of a human, product, organization etc.

Those circumstances complicate the process of providing an understanding of flexibility in the context of the thesis for the reader. Therefore a more accurate definition of flexibility is required. Hence the problem needs to be clearly defined and structured.

2.1 Structuring of the problem

This section highlights the two major problems identified for this regard of the research. A detailed analysis results in three sub problems for each major problem as shown in figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2: Mapping of problems

illustration not visible in this excerpt

The emphasis of the framework above lays in the illustration of the major problems and their sub problems. According to that the paper looks at flexibility and flexibility measurement within the manufacturing industry, service industry and BE. The extension of the research on both industries, although BE belongs to the service industry, can be predicated on the following:

- Nature of Flexibility in the manufacturing industry is broader studied than flexibility in the service industry
- Models, Assumptions, Definitions can be compared and analysed
- Evaluation of Adaptation issues
- consider the application of manufacturing flexibility framework to service operations and a subsequent derivation of a basic approach for BE
- Knowledge enhancement to set priorities for further research
- Find literature links related to the service industry
- Understanding of the role flexibility and measurement plays

During the literature review, information was gathered regarding theories, definitions, fields of application, models, critical comments, stage of development and assumptions associated with the two major problems. The research centered on the key points mentioned above and it looked to link and develops procedures, methods, approaches to measure flexibility within the context of an LSP, such as BE.

Possible adaptations of cognitions, models, etc from the literature to BE requires alignment with internal requirements, structures and finally must be conform to achieve the intended aim. In order to simplify and summarize all knowledge, obtained from the analysis of the sub problems, the most appropriate resource is to build up a model, henceforth referred to as the BE flexibility model (see chapter 2.4) – which will be used to measure BE’s flexibility. Before the model could be built all the necessary input data to generate the structure of the model needed to be collated.

2.2 Analysis of essential concepts and theories

It is advisable to distinguish between adaptability and agility as they are closely related to flexibility. The subject adaptability is broadly discussed in a plurality of fields of application. In the meaning of flexible, adaptable plants or production systems the definition is: adaptability means to have the ability to adapt according to the changing environment.[24] Compared to the fundamental definition, determined on page 8, a difference is indiscernible. Another point of view is dividing between flexibility and adaptability. Wiendahl and Schmigalla define: adaptability is the capability of a production system to adapt also through structural changes[25]. Thus the meaning of flexibility is the capability to adapt without structural changes[26].

Bordoloi, Cooper and Matsuo describe adaptability as the “ability to change within a given state.”, whereupon state is defined as, “the collection of capabilities.”[27] A very interesting distinction is done by Buzokatt, who doesn’t regard adaptability but divides flexibility in internal and external flexibilities.

External flexibility makes the system able to respond to changes due to external interferences. In contrast to this, internal flexibility is the feature of a system to work efficiently under diverse conditions and requirements.[28]

Regarding agility the most sources point to the critical need for organizations to enhance their ability to appropriately react and adapt to the ever changing environment.[29] The speed of permuting the necessary adaptations describes agility as a time component.[30] Agile organizations react to changes and try to act proactive in their environment.[31]

On the other hand agility is considered as a maxim of management. Thus the ability to adapt starts at corporate strategy and –culture level.[32] In the further course the subject flexibility will be used continuously, adaptability and agility are left out of consideration.

2.2.1 Manufacturing flexibility

There has been done a lot of work on manufacturing flexibility. SETHI and SETHI did extensive literature reviews on the topic.[33]

The existing literature can get divided into two main streams:[34] analytical models and empirical studies. In connection with the analytical models four main concerns have been described in the literature: 1. flexibility and life cycle theory; 2. flexibility as a hedge against uncertainty; 3. interactions between flexibility and inventory; 4. flexibility as a strategic variable that influences competitor’s actions.

Four groups designate the empirical literature[35]: The First group comprises the Development of taxonomies of flexibility. The relationship between Flexibility and Performance has been concerned by the second group. With regard to the third group their main focus are historical and economical analyses of flexibility, which tend to view flexibility as a competitive advantage for a firm, industry or country. A fourth group deals with literature reviews or strategic frameworks that analyze flexibility.

Typical for the subject flexibility is the division in different dimensions or levels. The following concepts of several authors take hold of this aspect. SETHI and SETHI consider flexibility on three different levels named as Basic level with Basic flexibility types, System level with system flexibility types and Aggregate level with aggregate flexibility types.[36] The allocation of the separate flexibility types to the used levels is displayed in the figure below:

Figure 2.3: Flexibility levels and types according to Sethi and Sethi[37]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

It is valid, basic flexibilities add to the different systems flexibilities, whereby the aggregate level is affected.

Following each flexibility type gets clarified:[38]

1) Basic level – Basic flexibilities (flexibility types of each component):

a. Machine flexibility describes the different operations of a machine.

b. Material handling flexibility is the ability to efficiently constitute and manufacture different components.

c. Operational flexibility means a component can be manufactured in different ways.

2) System level – systems flexibilities (related to a production system)

a. A production system that can manufacture a specific amount of different components without adjustments determines process flexibility.

b. Product flexibility as capability of the production system to add new components to existing components.

c. Routing flexibility is the ability of a production system to manufacture a product on various routes that exist.

d. Key point of volume flexibility is to produce profitable at different output levels up to the capacity limit.

e. Having flexibility to expand the production systems capacity limit with appropriate effort equals expansion flexibility.

3) Aggregate level – aggregate flexibilities

a. Program flexibility is characteristic for a production system that can operate without external influence for a long time period.

b. The universe of components, which a production system can manufacture without major adjustments or changes.

c. The ability to adapt to changing market demands is summarized under the subject market flexibility.

Likewise in the same way Koste and Malhorta carried out the methodology above. They define flexibility types and allocate them to manufacturing systems levels. Figure 2.5 reports the hierarchy of flexibility types in every one of these manufacturing systems levels.

Figure 2.4: Flexibility levels and types according to Koste and Malhorta[39]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In contrast to SETHI and SETHI the framework is extended by one additional level (shop floor level), the other levels can be similarly interpreted. The flexibility types correspond to the one suggested by SETHI and SETHI, basically just use different names partly. They for instance group modification and new product flexibility together as market flexibility. Slack, Gerwin and Upton are other authors, which make full use of comparable methodologies in their executions.[40] Upton even includes three different time horizons (operational, tactical and strategic) in his framework, which adds an additional component, where flexibility can be described.[41]

Manufacturing flexibility is expressed as “the ability to effectively respond to changing circumstances”.[42] A manufacturing system responds to changing circumstances, viewed as stimuli, by maintaining or adapting its outputs.[43] The response resources that are needed can be measured in units of time or cost.[44]

In the light of those multiple homologous enumerations referring to flexibility type’s/-levels a review on literature has indicated[45]:

1. Four basic types of manufacturing flexibility:
- Mix flexibility
- Volume flexibility
- New-product flexibility
- Delivery-time flexibility

2. Four basic factors which affect the need for flexibility:
- Product Strategy of the firm
- Behaviour of relevant competitors
- Product-Demand Characteristics
- stage in the life cycle of the industry

3. And also suggests six factors that affect implementation of flexibility:
- Production technology
- Production management techniques
- Relationships with subcontractors, suppliers, and distributors
- Human resources (training and skills increase)
- Product design
- Accounting and Information systems

Reviewing the explanations and theories, manufacturing flexibility can be seen as a multidimensional construct, divided in flexibility types / dimensions and levels. Although broadly discussed in the literature it is difficult to find a standard definition of the types / dimensions and levels. Many authors share similar views as far as the definition and concept concerned, however the dimensions that they point out are referred to by different terms.[46]

With the reasoning it seems to be too complex to select the right flexibility dimensions and levels incident with a correct evaluation of flexibility in a manufacturing environment. At the one extreme there are no detailed methods available to create the flexibility dimensions / levels and the multidimensional character hampers to capture flexibility and creates complexity.

2.2.2 Measurement of manufacturing flexibility

There are different ways for the quantification of flexibility stated, which are based on indicators (i.e. cost, time or technical), number / range of adaptabilities or interview surveys to gather perceptions. Analyzed on the example of mix flexibility and volume flexibility a short explanation about their measurement forms the introduction of this section.

According to Parker and Wirth companies can achieve higher volume flexibility levels when they have low fixed operation costs, lower variable costs, high unitary prices and/or a large manufacturing capacity.[47]

With these elements the range where a manufacturing system can operate efficiently is determined.[48] The lowest limit of this range is settled by the break-even point equal to minimum capacity while the highest limit is established by the maximum capacity of the system.[49] An integrated measure of both volume and mix flexibility includes the use of these limits.[50]

Given a combination of products and scheduled period to fabricate, lowest and highest limit are calculated by developed formulas. Both fixed and variable costs are taken into account in the calculation for the Break-even point.[51] In order to determine the maximum capacity of the manufacturing system the available plus the occupational times of the machines have to be considered.[52] The difference between highest and lowest limit reflects volume and mix flexibility.[53] Flexibility is used to be measured in this case with technical indicators (capacity) in the form of performance indicators.

Mix – Flexibility has also received attention as have been measured by the number of products that a system produces at any point in time.[54] After this definition it is easy to equate mix flexibility to the breadth of the product line.[55]

But in the most cases this statement needs to be reconsidered. Rather incorporate the heterogeneity of the product set in the measurement as well to broad the viewing angle.[56] Referring to gain a competitive advantage it is beneficial to produce a wide variety of low volume products in small batches.[57]

A firm’s volume flexibility is reflected in the shape of its average total cost function. A flat average cost function is increasing the firm’s flexibility, as it can increment its output without much cost penalty instead of holding the production around the optimal output level.[58] A few authors have suggested alternative measures:[59] There is a suggestion of looking at the stability of costs as production fluctuates. Another suggestion seeks to measure the ratio of average volume changes to the production capacity limit, over a specific time or also by the range of volumes in which the firm can run profitably. Once again the use of indicators has been established as a measurement method.

Routing flexibility as a flexibility type indicates the number of different manufacturing options per product as a measure.[60] Expansion flexibility is the ability to rapidly change the volume demonstrates more flexibility.[61] In this context a measure for delivery flexibility is the ability to change manufacturing throughput time.[62] This measure is considering the amount of possible adaptations to determine delivery flexibility.

In order to measure the perception of flexibility dimensions in the process industry the use of an interview survey was an alternative flexibility measurement method.[63] The objective was to equate the flexibility dimensions found in the literature to the perceptions and perceived importance of different aspects of manufacturing flexibility[64]. Thereto the theoretical framework for the interviews was structured as follows:[65]

A change in the environment (stimuli) creates a response (dimension) -compare page 16 in chapter 2.2.1. This combination was identified as a stimuli/response pair. To each pair a measure, referred to as ability was defined.

The respondent relative importance assigned to each ability was gathered by a scale from 0 – 5, with 5 correlating to highest importance. Therefore it’s more a perceived flexibility that is getting measured.

2.2.3 Service flexibility

The word Service flexibility hasn’t been studied as comprehensively as manufacturing flexibility. In particular, the confusion that overwhelmed manufacturing for years is a problem that the concept of flexibility of service processes suffers from currently.[66]

Although the importance of flexibility has reached a substantial progress in terms of acknowledged, efforts to bring the existing theoretical research and practises together are not that significant in order to evaluate both manufacturing and service flexibility.[67] Operations management (OM) fulfils a central role within a service delivery system like BE.

The relationship between operations strategy in services and service flexibility has been understood in OM literature in terms of environmental variability.[68]

Summarized the main conclusions and coherences:[69]

- Service operations strategy reacts to changes that affect competition
- Structural and infrastructural decisions (configuration elements) configure the service operational strategy
- Configuration elements directly influence the flexibility level of the delivery system
- Service Operations strategy directly affects operational performance

Quality, flexibility or customer satisfaction have become crucial to firm success in the service environment, traditional cost performance measures exclude these factors.[70]

Performance measures, which capture and reflect service operations strategies, due to non-cost-based measures of service operations practises are required.[71] An indicator for customer satisfaction could for instance be the customer churn rate.

The way of strategic decision making in an organizational setting is adequate the process of operations strategy.[72] Strategy issues are primarily researched regarding a number of decision areas and performance goals setting.[73] In the traditional OM literature service operations strategy is termed according to the development process of the service delivery system to achieve fully match of customer expectations with customer perceptions.[74]

Diverse service classifications and schemes, suggested in models and frameworks explain this process, whereas only a few studies analyse the differentiation and interaction between the different configuration elements (dimensions) of the service operations strategy.[75] For service industries three basic operations strategies (process, service or customer-oriented strategies) have been identified.[76]

In service firms, flexibility still lacks a definite and accurate definition as not all service flexibility dimensions have been clearly determined.[77] As already exemplified in chapter 2.2.1, flexibility is seen multidimensional. The service delivery system handles and manages changes by adapting the different flexibility dimensions aligned with the operations strategy.[78]

In this context service flexibility involves:[79]

- introduction of new designs/services into the service delivery system quickly, comparable to product flexibility from SETHI and SETHI.
- adjust capacity comparable to volume/expansions flexibility from SETHI and SETHI
- customize service
- handle changes in the service mix comparable to process flexibility (SETHI/SETHI), mix flexibility (Koste and Malhorta)
- handle variations in customer delivery schedules comparable to delivery-time flexibility (Suarez / Cusumano / Fine)

[...]


[1] CP Berco Logistics 2007, Generic Tender, Johannesburg 2007, p. 3ff.

[2] Ibidem.

[3] CP Berco Logistics 2007, p. 5ff.

[4] CP, Ibidem.

[5] CP, Statistics South Africa, www.statssa.gov.za, [10.12.2007], 2 pages.

[6] CP, Ibidem.

[7] CP, Jungblut, H., Verbesserungspotentiale in Supply Chain Netzwerken durch Einsatz von Logistikdienstleistern im Transportlogistikmanagement, http://tu-chemnitz.euni.de/static/diplomica, [18.12.2007], one page.

[8] CP, Ibidem.

[9] CP, Ibidem.

[10] CP, Ibidem.

[11] CP, Ibidem.

[12] CP. EDS Global Transportation Industry Group, Transportation: Logistics Service Providers, http://www.eds.com/services/whitepapers/downloads/transportationsupply.pdf ,[03.11.2006], P. 1 – 12, p.1.

[13] CP, Jungblut, H., Verbesserungspotentiale in Supply Chain Netzwerken durch Einsatz von Logistikdienstleistern im Transportlogistikmanagement, http://tu-chemnitz.euni.de/static/diplomica, [18.12.2007], one page.

[14] CP, Ibidem.

[15] CP. EDS Global Transportation Industry Group, Transportation: Logistics Service Providers, http://www.eds.com/services/whitepapers/downloads/transportationsupply.pdf ,[03.11.2006], P. 1 – 12, p.7.

[16] CP, Ibidem.

[17] CP, Ibidem.

[18] CP, Neill, J., Qualitative versus Quantitative Research: Key Points in a Classic Debate, 28.02.07, http://wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html, [18.12.2007], two pages.

[19] CP, Meyers, M., Qualitative Research and the Generalizability Question: Standing Firm with Proteus, March 2000, http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-3/myers.html, [18.12.2007], one page.

[20] CP, Ibidem.

[21] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 46.

[22] CP Ibidem, p. 45.

[23] CP Ibidem, p. 48.

[24] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 48.

[25] CP, ibidem, p. 48.

[26] CP, ibidem, p. 49.

[27] Bordoloi, Sanjeev K. / Cooper, William W. / Matsuo, Hirofumi, Flexibility, adaptability, and efficiency in manufacturing systems, Production and Operations Management Vol. 8, No.2, 1999,p. 133-149, cited in: P. Swafford, A model of Global Supply Chain Agility and its impact on Competitive performance, Georgia Institute of technology (2000), http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/1999/99_00-26.pdf, [20.05.2007], p. 1-50,p. 12.

[28] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 49.

[29] P. Swafford, A model of Global Supply Chain Agility and its impact on Competitive performance, Georgia Institute of technology (2000), http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/1999/99_00-26.pdf, [20.05.2007], p. 1-50, p. 2.

[30] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 49.

[31] CP, Ibidem.

[32] CP, Ibidem, p. 50.

[33] CP, Suarez, F. / Cusumano, M. / Fine, C., An empirical Study of Manufacturing Flexibility in Printed-Circuit Board Assembly, MIT Sloan School of Management (October 1992), http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/2439/1/SWP-3484-26970575.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1-35,p. 4.

[34] CP, ibidem.

[35] CP, ibidem.

[36] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 55.

e[37] CP, ibidem, p. 56.

[38] CP, Wernhoeher, Nils, Flexibilitaetsoptimierung zur Auslastungssteigerung im Automobilbau, Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 2005, http://darwin.bth.rwth-aachen.de/opus3/volltexte/2006/1496/pdf/Wemhoener_Nils.pdf, [18.06.2007], p. 1 -226, p. 53ff.

[39] Pelaez-Ibarrondo, J.J. / Ruiz-Mercader, J., Measuring Operational Flexibility, Proceedings of the Fourth SMESME International Conference, http://iprod.auc.dk/sme2001/paper/mercader.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1 -11,p. 2.

[40] CP, Ibidem.

[41] CP, Bylesjö, H., Modelling Output Flexibility in Process industry, University of Technology, Schweden, http://www.ici.ro/ici/revista/sic2003_1/art1.pdf, [18.12.2007], p.1-9, p. 3.

[42] Mandelbaum, M. / Brill, P.H., Examples of measurement of flexibility and adaptiveness in manufacturing systems, Journal of Operational research society, 40 (6), (1989), p. 603 – 609, in: Bylesjö, H., Modelling Output Flexibility in Process industry, University of Technology, Schweden, http://www.ici.ro/ici/revista/sic2003_1/art1.pdf, [18.12.2007], p.1-9, p. 3.

[43] CP, Bylesjö, H., Modelling Output Flexibility in Process industry, University of Technology, Schweden, http://www.ici.ro/ici/revista/sic2003_1/art1.pdf, [18.12.2007], p.1-9, p. 3.

[44] CP, ibidem.

[45] CP, Suarez, F. / Cusumano, M. / Fine, C., An empirical Study of Manufacturing Flexibility in Printed-Circuit Board Assembly, MIT Sloan School of Management (October 1992), http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/2439/1/SWP-3484-26970575.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1-35,p. 4.

[46] CP, Bylesjö, H., Modelling Output Flexibility in Process industry, University of Technology, Schweden, http://www.ici.ro/ici/revista/sic2003_1/art1.pdf, [18.12.2007], p.1-9, p. 3.

[47] CP, Parker, R. / Wirth, A., manufacturing flexibility: measures and relationships, European journal of operations research, Vol 118 (1999), p. 429-449, in: Pelaez-Ibarrondo, J.J. / Ruiz-Mercader, J., Measuring Operational Flexibility, Proceedings of the Fourth SMESME International Conference, http://iprod.auc.dk/sme2001/paper/mercader.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1 -11, p. 5.

[48] Pelaez-Ibarrondo, J.J. / Ruiz-Mercader, J., Measuring Operational Flexibility, Proceedings of the Fourth SMESME International Conference, http://iprod.auc.dk/sme2001/paper/mercader.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1 -11, p. 5.

[49] CP, Ibidem.

[50] CP, Ibidem.

[51] Pelaez-Ibarrondo, J.J. / Ruiz-Mercader, J., Measuring Operational Flexibility, Proceedings of the Fourth SMESME International Conference, http://iprod.auc.dk/sme2001/paper/mercader.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1 -11, p. 5.

[52] CP, ibidem.

[53] CP, ibidem, p. 6.

[54] CP, Suarez, F. / Cusumano, M. / Fine, C., An empirical Study of Manufacturing Flexibility in Printed-Circuit Board Assembly, MIT Sloan School of Management (October 1992), http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/2439/1/SWP-3484-26970575.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1-35,p. 6.

[55] CP, ibidem.

[56] CP, ibidem.

[57] Cp, Berry, W. / Cooper, M., Manufacturing flexibility: methods for measuring the impact of product variety on performance in process industries, journal of operations management, 1999, p. 163 – 178, in: P. Swafford, A model of Global Supply Chain Agility and its impact on Competitive performance, Georgia Institute of technology (2000), http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/1999/99_00-26.pdf, [20.05.2007], p. 1-50, p. 24.

[58] CP, Suarez, F. / Cusumano, M. / Fine, C., An empirical Study of Manufacturing Flexibility in Printed-Circuit Board Assembly, MIT Sloan School of Management (October 1992), http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/2439/1/SWP-3484-26970575.pdf, [18.12.2007], p. 1-35,p. 8.

[59] CP, ibidem.

[60] CP, P. Swafford, A model of Global Supply Chain Agility and its impact on Competitive performance, Georgia Institute of technology (2000), http://www.ciber.gatech.edu/workingpaper/1999/99_00-26.pdf, [20.05.2007], p. 1-50, p. 24.

[61] CP, ibidem, p. 26.

[62] CP, ibidem.

[63] CP, Bylesjö, H., Modelling Output Flexibility in Process industry, University of Technology, Schweden, http://www.ici.ro/ici/revista/sic2003_1/art1.pdf, [18.12.2007], p.1-9, p. 5.

[64] CP, ibidem.

[65] CP, ibidem.

[66] CP, Aranda, D., Service operations strategy, flexibility and performance in engineering consulting firms, University of Granada, Spain, 2003, http://hera.ugr.es/doi/15059406.pdf, [20.05.2007], p. 1-21, p. 1.

[67] CP, ibidem, p. 2.

[68] Ibidem.

[69] Cp, Ibidem.

[70] CP, Ibidem.

[71] CP, Ibidem.

[72] CP, Ibidem.

[73] CP, Ibidem.

[74] CP, Ibidem.

[75] CP, Ibidem.

[76] CP, Ibidem.

[77] CP, ibidem.

[78] CP, ibidem, p. 4.

[79] CP, ibidem, p. 4.

Details

Seiten
112
Erscheinungsform
Originalausgabe
Jahr
2008
ISBN (eBook)
9783836625395
Dateigröße
1 MB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v226509
Institution / Hochschule
Technische Universität Chemnitz – Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Betriebswissenschaften und Fabriksysteme
Note
1,4
Schlagworte
supply chain management flexibilitätsmessung flexibilität service logistik

Autor

Zurück

Titel: Flexibility Measurement within the Service industry